Nuclear safety

saqarTveloSi dislocirebuli zogierTi samxedro obieqtis piradi Semadgenlobis garegani dasxivebis wliuri efeqturi da koleqtiuri dozebi.             m.jorbenaZe

 

Tanamedrove periodSi mTel msoflioSi aRiniSneba biosferos maCveneblebis gauareseba. amasTanave gamoxatulia adamianis organizmze fsiqologiuri, stresuli da fizikuri datvirTvebis zrda. yovelive es iwvevs ara marto mosaxleobis avadobis, maT Soris avTvisebiani procesebis zrdis tendencias, imunitetis daqveiTebas, aramed matulobs ganviTarebis anomaliebi (mkvdradSobadoba, genetikuri cvlilebebi) da sxva arasasurveli Sedegebi. am konteqstSi ukanasknel wlebSi garkveuli yuradReba eqceva mosaxleobaze garemos iseTi faqtorebis zemoqmedebas, rogoricaa radiaciuli foni (garegani da Sinagani dasxiveba), pirobadebuli bunebrivi da xelovnuri wyaroebiT da miT gamowveuli dasxivebis dozebi, romelTa gadaWarbebam SesaZlebelia mosaxleobis janmrTelobis mdgomareobaze arasasurveli gavlena iqonios (2).

saqarTvelos prezidentis brZanebulebiT Seiqmna samTavrobo komisia qimiuri da radiaciuli fonis Sesamowmeblad yofili sabWoTa kavSiris yvela samxedro obieqtze, romelic ganlagebulia saqarTvelos teritoriaze (8).

1996 wels Seiqmna saxelmwifo programa “radiacia”, romlis mizans warmoadgens saqarTveloSi arsebuli radiaciuli fonis gansazRvra, anomaluri regionebis gamovlena, am regionis mosaxleobis janmrTelobis mdgomareobis Seswavla da samkurnalo-profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebis dasaxva da gatareba (1,4).

winamdebare naSromis mizans warmoadgenda saqarTvelos teritoriaze dislocirebul samxedro obieqtebze radiaciuli foniT (Ria adgilebisa da Senobebis radiaciuli foni) pirobadebuli wliuri efeqturi da koleqtiuri dozebis dadgena.

am mizniT dadgenil iqna piradi Semadgenlobis dislocirebis adgilebSi Ria midamoebisa da yazarmebis radiaciuli foni. radiaciuli fonis gasazomad gamoiyeneboda dozimetr-radiometri ДРПБ-03”. mTlianad gaizoma 2749 wertili (27490 ganazomi). maCveneblebis damuSaveba xorcieldeboda Pentium – 4 (Windows XP) tipis kompiuterze -  Word,  Excel, Fox pro 6.0,  SPSS, Statistic 6.0 programebSi. dasxivebis koleqtiuri dozis dasadgenad vsargeblobdi formuliT

 

S=N<D>

 

sadac S ­ _ koleqtiuri dozaa, N _ piradi Semadgenlobis saerTo raodenoba,  <D>  _ wliuri saSualo statistikuri dozis simZlavre.

korelaciuri kavSiris gansazRvra warmoebda karl pirsonis formuliT:

                            

                         

 

 

      sadac r  korelaciis koeficientia, ,  ori niSnis gadaxra.

      Sesafasebeli Skalis mixedviT xdeboda korelaciis koeficientis kritikuli mniSvnelobis dadgena.

      damajereblobis kriteriumebis Sefasebisas gamoiyeneboda formula:

 

 

                          

 

 

sadac   da    saSualo statistikuri maCvenebelia, xolo   da  saSualo cdomileba.

miRebuli monacemebis safuZvelze dadginda, rom samxedro nawilebSi ganTavsebuli piradi Semadgenlobis bunebrivi wyaroebiT (Ria adgilebisa da Senobebi) ganpirobebuli garegani dasxivebis sruli efeqturi doza (<D> sruli) meryeobs 1-1.5 mzv/weliwadSi. saSualod misi sidide tolia 1.25 mzv/weliwadSi. yvelaze didia me-7 obieqtze – 1.5 mzv/weliwadSi, yvelaze naklebi 1 – 6 obieqtebze _ 1 mzv/weliwadSi. rac Seexeba koleqtiur dozas is meryeobs 26 – 368 adamiani mzv/weliwadSi. yvelaze maRalia me-3 obieqtze - 368 adamiani mzv/weliwadSi, yvelaze naklebia me-4 obieqtze – 26 adamiani mzv/weliwadSi.

 

saqarTveloSi dislocirebuli zogierTi samxedro nawilis Senobebis  radiaciuli foni.   m.jorbenaZe   

ZiriTad nawils dasxivebisa dedamiwis mosaxleoba Rebulobs radiaciis bunebrivi wyaroebidan. maTi umetesoba iseTia, rom maTgan Tavis dacva yovlad SeuZlebelia. dedamiwis arsebobis mTeli istoriis manZilze sxvadasxva saxeobis gamosxiveba kosmosidan ecema dedamiwaze da aseve dedamiwis qerqidan gamosxivdeba. adamiani am sxivebiT ganicdis garedan dasxivebas orive saSualebiT (1).

amerikis garemos dacvis saagentom sacxovrebel saxlebSi, skolebsa da samuSao adgilebze radonis donis 2 mln-ze meti gazomviT daadgina, rom Senobebis 30 %-Si zogierT StatSi radonis maCvenebeli normaze meti iyo (2).

bunebrivi radionuklidebis Semcveloba Senoba-nagebobebisa da saSen masalebSi organizmze garkveul zegavlenas axdens, radgan adamiani drois umetes nawils (80%) SenobaSi atarebs (3).

samuSaos mizans warmoadgenda saqarTveloSi dislocirebuli samxedro nawilebis Senobebis radiaciuli fonis gamokvleva.

gamokvlevis meTodi da masala. radiaciuli fonis gazomva tardeboda erTiani meTodologiiT specialurad SemuSavebuli instruqciis mixedviT. radiaciuli fonis gasazomad gamoiyeneboda dozimetr-radiometri ДРПБ-03”. gazomvebi tardeboda SenobebSi – iatakidan 1m simaRleze, kedlidan 1m daSorebiT. fiqsirdeboda rogorc minimaluri aseve maqsimaluri simZlavreebi, romelTa meSveobiT angariSdeboda saSualo maCveneblebi. sul gaizoma 1004 wertili (10040 ganazomi). maCveneblebis damuSaveba xorcieldeboda Pentium – 4 (Windows XP) tipis kompiuterze -  Word,  Excel, Fox pro 6.0,  SPSS, Statistic 6.0 programebSi.

Seswavlili iqna ramdenime samxedro nawilis SenobaTa radiaciuli foni

miRebuli Sedegebi da maTi gansja. Catarebulma gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom gazomil SenobebSi radiaciuli fonis sidide meryeobda 0.12 – 0.17 mkzv/sT-is farglebSi. yvelaze maRali dafiqsirda me-3 obieqtebze – 0.17 mkzv/sT, yvelaze dabali me-6 obieqtze - 0.12 mkzv/sT. saSualod - 0.14 mkzv/sT-Si.

SenobebSi wliuri dasxivebis dozis yvelaze maRali maCvenebeli dafiqsirda me-3 obieqtze – 1.19 mzv/w, xolo yvelaze dabali me-6 obieqtze – 0.84 mzv/w. saSualod - 1 mzv/w.

gamokvlevebis Catarebis dros cal-calke fiqsirdeboda radiaciuli fonis simZlavris maCvenebeli imis mixedviT, Tu ra masaliT iyo aSenebuli Senoba (aguri, bloki, xe, pemza), riTaa gadaxuruli (Siferi, kramiti, betoni, toli, gudroni, TuTia, Tunuqi, alumini) da ra masalaa gamoyenebuli iatakad (betoni, mozaika, xe).

Sedarebebma cxadyo rom SedarebiT metia gamosxivebis simZlavre iq sadac saSen masalad gamoyenebulia betoni – 0.58 mkzv/sT da mozaika _ 0.52 mkzv/sT, vidre iq sadac saSen masalad gamoyenebuli iyo xe - 0.08 mkzv/sT.

amgvarad SenobebSi, sadac samxedro nawilebis piradi Semadgenlobaa ganlagebuli, radiaciuli foni ZiriTadad metia, vidre es evropis zogierT qveynebSia dafiqsirebuli, magram naklebia samxreT kavkasiis qveynebTan SedarebiT. Cveni azriT amis mizezi CvenSi xmarebuli samSeneblo masalis SedarebiT maRali xvedriTi aqtivobaa, rac albaT dakavSirebulia dedamiwis (risganac mzaddeba adgilobrivi samSeneblo masala) geomorfologiuri Semadgenlobis TaviseburebebTan. rac Seexeba samxreT kavkasiis qveynebs _ azerbaijansa da somxeTs, sadac Senobebis radiaciuli foni ufro maRalia, amis mizezi garda aRniSnulisa unda iyos agreTve albaT is, rom am qveynebSi farTodaa gamoyenebuli iseTi saSeni masala, rogoricaa qva, graniti, pemza da sxva, romelTa bunebrivi radioaqtivoba SedarebiT ufro maRalia.

SedarebiT maRali radiaciuli foni Cvens mier gamokvleul SenobebSi mianiSnebs agreTve imaze, rom saqarTvelo miekuTvneba ramdenadme momatebuli bunebrivi radiaciuli fonis mqone qveyanas da piradi Semadgenloba ganicdis bunebriv dasxivebas SedarebiT meti dozebiT.

 

Background radiation of the territory of some

military objectives in Georgia.             M.JORBENADZE

The main degree of irradiation population of the Earth recives from the natural sources of radiation. We can't protect from much of them because of their nature.

During to whole history of existance the Earth irradiates from the space and also from the Earth crust. Population also  irradiates from both of them (4). Each of us irradiates from natural sources, but some of us irradiates by high doses of radiation. These depends on place of residence. The level of background radiation of the territory reach by natural radiactive sources is higher, then other territories.

The main radiactive isotopes, which are dispersed through the Earth crust are: K40, Rb87  and two families of isotopes which take birth from U238  and Th232  longterm isotopes.

The level of radiation of Earth crust is not similar for different territories and depends on concentration of radioisotopes in soil. They are more similar for territories of maximal residention of population.

The main part of population residences in places with radiation level in average 0.3 – 0.6 mSv/y. But it is notable that  3% of population irradiates high doses of radiation  -  1 mZv/y in average and 1.5% - more then 1.4 mZv/y. 

      Military might of country depends on the state of its army, its organization, material and technical basis, readiness for military actions. All of this depends on the political, social and economical state of  the country. As a rule, the army must protect the interests of the country  and  as it is stated in the Constitution of Georgia: “The kind and personnel of the Army is determined by the law”. Protection and security of the State, problems of peace and war, determination of the legal state of emergency is the prerogative right of the high state legislative body of Georgia (2).

            From all the mentioned it is clear, that the full value of health of the army personnel determine its power. This in its turn, depends on the influensce of permanent factors (including harmful for health). The ionizing radiation is one of them.

            The accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986 has its effect on Georgia as well.Georgia is in the list of the countries, which suffered from the accident (5). The Chernobyl accident was 152-nd and was distinguished from the others by the power of explosion. MAGATE called it a global, because of the maximum release of radioactive substances into the atmospere (5.6).

            There are 200 nuclear power stations in Europe, including Armenian NPS, wich is located very close to the territory of Georgia. In case of accident at the station there is a great risk of contamination of vast areas for a lon time (3).

            Background radiation of buildings and open territory and exposition dose levels are measured in many countries. It is notable, that in the Ukraine there has been worked out a computer data base of all military objects, which could be dangerous for ecology .

            Such intesive investigations are carried out after scientists proved that ionizing radiation has a negative biological influence not only at a high level of radiation, but in case of long-term radiation of small doses (1).

            By the order of President of Georgia a govermnental committee has been set up for studying chemical background and background radiation of all the military objectives of the former USSR, located on the territory of Georgia . By premilinary information the sources of radiation are spread over the territory of Svaneti and West Georgia. As specialists state on the territory of Georgia there are up to 6 generators, containing st-90, that  represents great radiation danger. These generators were brought to Georgia in 80-ies for Hudoni hydroelectric power station (7). Their operation term expired in 90-ies and it was planned to take them from Georgia, but they have been lost .

            The sources of radiation wer foud in Lilo (near Tbilisi), in Samegrelo (Tsalenjikha) in Imereti (Zestafoni, Kutaisi, Senaki), Marneuli region it is notable, that in Tsalenjikha local people through ignorance used these sources for heating.

            From above said is clear, that for proection of haelth of the personel of Army, for their ative functioning, for protection from terroristic acts is very important to study the levels of background radiation of he territory of permanent dislocation of the Georgian Army: in the barraks and surrounding territory; to determine the effective and collective dose of radiation and comperise them with the morbidity levels, to work out sanitary measures and realise them in practice.  

            Our objective was to study background radiation of the open territory of some military units, dislocated in Georgia.

            Methods and materials. The study has been done by common methodology according to a specially worked out instruction. Dosimeter –radiometer  - "ДРПБ-03" was used for measuring background radiation. The measuring was carried out in the open places at the height of 1m from the ground. Maximal and minimal indices were fixed, and then the average index was calculated. 1745 units has been studied (17450 investigatings). The findings were processed on "Pentium-4"  type PC (Windows XP) in Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excell, Microsoft Visual Fox Pro 6.0, SPSS 8.0, Statistic 6.0.

            When determining the average annual doze of radiation of the population it was taken into consideration that only 20% of the territory and the rest in the buildings.

     Results and discussion. The study has sown us that background radiation of investigated points vary from 0.09 to 0.28 microSv/h. The maximal is in the 8-th objective – 0.28 microSv/h, and the minimal is the second objective – 0.09 microSv/h, in avеrage - 0.18 microSv/h (Tab.1.)

 The maximal level of annual radiation dose is fixed on the 8-th objective – 0.49 mSv/y, minimal – on the second objective – 0.15 мSv/y (Tab2.).

            The analysis of the finding has shown that background radiation of the open territory of the investigated military objectives is a little higher, than in Europe and South Caucasian Countries (except Armenia). For them the level varies from 0.05 to 0.13 microSv/h. This can be explained by the peculiarities of our country: geomorphological structure and location of soil (altitude and latitude), that can be a reason of high levels of natural background radiation. Thus, our country can be considered as a country. with comparatively high level of natural background radiation. The level of background radiation is higher in Black sea coast area, which maybe the result of the Chernobyl Accident (contamination with artifical radionuclides). The comparatively high level of background radiation indicates, that the personnel gets some high dose of natural radiation.

 

 

Recent Forum Posts

No recent posts

Recent Videos

No recent videos