Nuclear safety

birTvuli iaraRis afeTqebebi.

bolo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi kacobrioba Tavis Tavze ganicdida dasxivebas radioaqtiuri naleqebisagan, romelic gamowveuli iyo birTvuli afeTqebebiT. saubaria ara marto im naleqebze, romlebic mimoibna 1945 wels xirosimasa da nagasakSi birTvuli yumbaris afeTqebisas (135), aramed sahaero sawrTvnel birTvul afeTqebebze, romlebic mimdinareobda Cvens planetaze samocdaaTian wlebamde. am gamocdebis maqsimumi iyofa or periodad: pirveli 1945-1958 ww, roca afeTqebebi tardeboda inglisSi, aSS, da sabWoTa kavSirSi, da meore metad mniSvnelovani – 1961-1962 wlebi, roca maT awarmoebda aSS da sabWoTa kavSiri (51).

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      am qveynebma 1963 wels xeli moaweres xelSekrulebas birTvuli gamocdebis SezRudvis Sesaxeb, aiRes valdebuleba rom ar gamocdidnen birTvul iaraRs haerSi, wyalSi da kosmosSi (128,129,136). amis Semdgom mxolod safrangeTma da CineTma Caatara seria birTvuli afeTqebebisa atmosferoSi. unda aRiniSnos, rom afeTqebebis simZlavre SesamCnevad naklebi iyo, xolo Tavad gamocdebi tardeboda iSviaTad (maTgan ukanaskneli Catarda 1980 wels). miwisqveSa afeTqebebi tardeba dResac, magram maT ar axlavT radioaqtiuri naleqebi. danarCeni tipis afeTqebebis dros radioaqtiuri masalis nawili gamoityorcneba gamocdebis adgilebidan Soriaxlos, garkveuli nawili kavdeba troposferoSi (yvelaze qveda Sre atmosferoSi), zogi aitaceba qariT da gadaadgildeba did manZilze, ZiriTadad erTidaimave ganedze. haerSi arsebobisas daaxloebiT erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi radioaqtiuri nivTierebebi am gadaadgilebebis dros TandaTanobiT mimoibneva miwaze. atmosferoSi Catarebuli afeTqebebis Sedegad radionuklidebis didi nawili gamoityorcneba stratosferoSi (atmosferos Semdegi fena simaRliT 10-50 km), sadac isini rCebian mravali Tveebis ganmavlobaSi. SemdgomSi nela ileqebian da ifantebian mTeli dedamiwis zedapirze. radioaqtiuri naleqebi Seicaven ramodenime aseul sxvadasxva radionuklids, maTi umetesoba swrafad iSleba.  

  radionuklidebis mxolod mcire raodenobas Seaqvs Tavisi wvlili adamianis dasxivebaSi. birTvuli sacdeli afeTqebebisas mosaxleobis efeqturi koleqtiuri ekvivalenturi dozis CamoyalibebaSi mxolod oTx radionuklids Seaqvs Tavisi wvlili. es aris naxSirbadi - 14, cezium - 137, cirkoniumi - 95 da stroncium - 90. jamuri mosalodneli koleqtiuri efeqturi  ekvivalenturi doza yvela birTvuli afeTqebisa atmosferoSi Seadgens 30 000 000 adamiani ziverti. 1980 wels kacobriobam miiRo mxolod 12%-i. danarCens isini miiReben Semdgomi milioni wlis ganmavlobaSi (51,111).

 

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