Nuclear safety

garemos damabinZurebeli wyaroebi.

atomis energiis SesaZleblobis gamoyeneba saxalxo meurneobis interesebSi qmnis  damatebiTi xelovnuri dasxivebis wyaroebs. umetes SemTxvevaSi dozebi ar aris didi, magram xandaxan teqnogenuri wyaroebi ramodenime aTeuljer intensiuria vidre bunebrivi wyaroebi. ZiriTadi datvirTva am dozis formirebaSi modis samedicino procedurebze da mkurnalobis meTodebze, romlebic dakavSirebulia radioaqtivobis da rentgenis danadgarebis gamoyenebasTan (19,41). diagnostikis erT-erTi gavrcelebuli  saSualeba _ rentgenis aparatia. ganviTarebuli qveynebis 1000 mosaxleze modis 300-dan 900-s gamokvleulze weliwadSi, Tu ar CavTvliT rentgenologiur gamokvlevebs kbilebis da masiur flurografias. gamokvlevis Catarebis dros pacienti Rebulobs minimalur dozas. magaliTad kbilebis rentgenografiisas -  0.03 zv (3 ber), kuWis rentgenografiisas _ amdenive, flurografiisas _ 3,7 mzv (370 ber) (2,28,46,74).  

      birTvuli afeTqebis Catarebis Sedegad, romelsac adgili hqonda gansakuTrebiT intensiurad gasuli saukunis 50-60-ian wlebSi warmoiqmna garemos (haeri, niadagi, wyali) dabinZureba 200-mde saxis xelovnuri radioaqtiuri izotopiT, romlebic qmnian adamianis garegani da Sinagani dasxivebis damatebiT xelovnur wyaros (73).

radioaqtiuri dasxivebis xelovnur wyaros warmoadgens agreTve samrewvelo xelsawyoebi, romlebic Seicaven radioaqtiur izotopebs an rentgenis generatorebs. esenia sisqis da donis mzomebi, viskozimetrebi da gamagrafiis sxva xelsawyoebi.

radioaqtiuri wyaroebis Semcveli  samrewvelo danadgarebis ricxvi dRiTidRe izrdeba. Tavad wyaro warmoadgens nivTs monetis odenas, amitom misi dakargva advilad SesaZlebelia, ramac SeiZleba migviyvanos mZime Sedegebamde.

garemos dabinZurebis mniSvnelovan wyaros warmoadgens radioaqtiuri masalebis transportireba. is moicavs radioaqtiur izotopebs, romlebic gamoiyeneba medicinaSi, gaaqtivebuli urani, uranis geksaftoridi, plutoni, narCenebi da sxva.

radioaqtiuri masalebis gadatana xorcieldeba saavtomobilo, rkinigzis sazRvao da sahaero transportis saSualebiT. usafrTxoebis wesebis darRvevam SeiZleba gamoiwvios garemos dabinZureba.

      garkveulwilad damabinZurebel wyaros warmoadgens birTvuli eleqtrosadgurebi. birTvul eleqtrosadgurebze myari narCenebis garda aris Txevadi (dabinZurebuli wylebi) da airovani (argon-41). Tburi  eleqtrosadgurebis milebidan amosuli Rrubeli warmoadgens adamianTa damatebiTi dasxivebis wyaros. bolo wlebis monacemebiT TiTeuli megavat-weli eleqtroenergiis warmoeba kacobriobas ujdeba 2 adamiani ziverti mosalodneli koleqtiuri efeqturi eqvivalenturi dasxivebis dozad. 1979 wels, magaliTad mosalodneli koleqtiuri efeqturi eqvivalenturi doza naxSirze momuSave yvela eleqtrosadguridan mTel msoflioSi Seadgina 2000 adamiani zv weliwadSi. unda aRiniSnos is faqtic, rom eleqtrosadgurebi ganlagebulia dasaxlebul adgilebTan axlos an dasaxlebuli adgilebis SuagulSi (1,14,15,16).

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania radioaqtiuri narCenebi, romlebic miiReba birTvuli masalis gamoyenebisa da gadamuSavebis procesSi. radioaqtiuri narCenebi xasiaTdebian didi mravalferovnebiT Tavisi radioaqtivobiT, fizikuri da qimiuri TvisebebiT, aseve “sicocxlis unarianobiT”. ganasxvaveben narCenebs mcire da xangrZlivi daSlis periodiT. mcire daSlis periodis mqone narCenebs ganekuTvneba radioaqtiuri elementebi, romelTa daSlis periodi 30 welze naklebia. eseTi narCenebi gvxvdeba birTvul eleqtrosadgurebze, kvleviT laboratoriebSi. isini moculobiT   yvela radioaqtiuri narCenis 95%-s Seadgenen. narCenebi xangrZlivi daSlis periodiT inaxeba miwis zedapiridan ramodenime aseul metr siRrmeze, mdgrad geologiur formaciebSi.

zemoT aRniSnuli monacemebi adastureben, rom yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi adamianze mudmivad moqmedebs bunebrivi Tu xelovnuri warmoSobis radiacia (134).

 

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