Nuclear safety

                      samxedro radiologia

           samxedro radiologiis safuZvlebi

     

     samxedro radiologia aris mecniereba romelic Seswavlis 

radioaqtiuri nivTierebebis parametrebs (siCqare, ionizacia, 

energia..), maTi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas birTvul iaraRSi, maT 

zemoqmedebas adaminis organizmze.

rogor nivTierebebs uwodeben radioaqtiur nivTierebebs? Q

qimiuri elementis unars daiSalos TavisTavad da gamoasxivos 

romelime maionebeli sxivi alfa, beta, gama _ radioaqtiur 

nivTierebebi ewodeba. Ppirveli aRmoCenebi am mimarTulebiT 

ekuTvnis anri bekerels, romelsac sruliad SemTxveviT magidis 

ujraSi darCa urani. Aamave ujraSi ido rentgenis gaumJRavnebeli 

firi. Mmeore dRes mis gaocebas sazRvari ar hqonda. Mmas firi 

gamJRavnebuli daxvda. is mivida daskvnamde rom urani asxivebda. am 

droisaTvis cnobili iyo mxolod rentgenis sxivebi. Semdgomi 

aRmoCenebi ekuTvniT col- qmar kiurebs. maT aRmoaCines poloniumi, 

vanadiumi da sxva.

ra Taviseburebebi gaaCnia radiacias? M

mas gaaCnia uaryofiTi da dadebiTi Taviseburebebi.

uaryofiTi  _ kacobriobam iwvnia roca amerikelebma iaponiisqalaq 

xirosimaSi 1945 wlis 6 agvistos Caagdes birTvuli bombi, sami dRis

Semdgom daibomba qalaqi nagasaki. orive qalaqis dabombvisas 215000 

adamianidan 110 000 adgilze daiRupa.

dadebiTi _ radioaqtiuri nivTierebebi gamoiyeneba atomur 

eleqtrosadgurebze energiis misaRebad, soflis meurneobaSi axali 

saukeTeso jiSebis misaRebad, medicinaSi onkologiur daavadebaTa 

mkurnalobisas, kosmonavtTa pursa da SaSxs asxiveben garkveuli 

dozebiT raTa ar gafuWdes da sxva.

 

strategiuli saSualebebis

Seqmnis istoria

 

     ormocdaaTiani wlebis bolos sabWoTa kavSirs birTvuli 

arsenalis sakmao raodenoba gaaCnda. Mmisi ZiriTadi mizani 

mimarTuli iyo iseTi birTvuli saSualebebis gamoyenebaze, 

romlebic SesZlebdnen kontinentTaSoriso problemis gadawyvetas 

da SeerTebuli Statebis teritoriaze  birTvuli dartymebis 

ganxorcielebas. Ees mizani ganpirobebuli iyo imdroindeli 

rogorc sagareo politikiT aseve omis Semdgomi 

mdgomareobiT.M

       miuxedavad imisa, rom 1949 wlisaTvis SeerTebuli 

Statebi ar iTvleboda monopolistad birTvul iaraRze, sabWoTa 

kavSiri iZulebuli iyo misTvis angariSi gaewia. A    

     am periodisaTvis Statebs gaaCndaT 1200 bombdamSeni, romlebsac

sabWoTa kavSiris teritoriaze SeeZloT 2000 birTvuli bombis

Camogdeba. birTvuli dartymebis Tavidan asacileblad sabWoTa

kavSirs esaWiroeboda sakuTari potencialis gazrda. Ppirveli

sabWoTa birTvuli iaraRis “matarebeli” iyo TY-4. Ggarda amisa 1951

wels Seiqmna TY-4-is prototipi moqmedebis ufro didi radiusiT,

magram samuSaoebi SeCerebuli iqna, rameTu hairsawinaaRmdego

saSualebebisaTvis, gamanadgureblebisaTvis eseTi modelebi

problemas ar warmoadgendnen. Aase Caeyara safuZveli TY-95, 

romelic Seqmna 1951 wels. 1962 wlisaTvis sabWoTa kavSirs

SeiaraRebaze 100 TY-95 hyavda romelsac SeeZlo 250 birTvuli

bombis gadatana. bombdamSenebis Seqmnis simcire ganpirobebuli iyo

agreTve im periodisaTvis sakontinentTaSoriso balistikuri

raketis P-7-is SeqmniT. 1957wels is gamoyenebuli iqna dedamiwis

xelovnuri Tanamgzavris gasaSvebad.

  yovelive aman Secvala sabWoTa kavSiris mimarTuleba da Seiqmna 

strategiuli daniSnulebis saraketo jarebi. Ggarda amisa moxda 

mrewvelobis reorganizacia pirveli adgili daeTmo raketebis 

gamoSvebas. 1961 wels daiwyo axali P-16 tipis sakontinentTaSoriso 

raketis warmoeba, romelic P-7-isagan dadebiTi maxasiaTeblebiT 

gansxvavdeboda. 1962 wlisaTvis sabWoTa kavSirs SeeZlo amerikis 

teritoriaze Camoegdo 300-mde bombi, xolo amerikelebs 3000-mde. 

garda amisa amerikas SeiaraRebaze hqonda 183 Atlas-isa da Titan-is 

tipis sakontinentTaSoriso raketebi da 144 raketa Polaris tipis 9 

atomur wyalqveSa navze.

 

 

maionebeli gamosxiveba

    birTvuli iaraRis damangreveli moqmedebis garda unda 

aRiniSnos erT-erTi saxifaTo faqtori es aris uxilavi 

maionizirebeli gamosxiveba _ alfa, beta, gama da neitronuli 

nawilakebi.

   alfa a nawilaki warmoadgens heliumis birTvebisnakads. 

Sedgeba ori protonisa da ori neitronisagan. Aalfa nawilakebi 

moZraoben 4-9 mev energiiT. alfa nawilakis ionizacia _ 1sm3 haerSi 

warmoqmnian 40 000 wyvil ions. haerSi ganarbeni manZili 5-11 sm. 

qsovilebSi aRweven 0,1 mm siRrmeze. siCqare 30 000 km/wm-Si.

   beta b nawilaki warmoadgens eleqtronebis nakads. isini 

gamoityorcneba atomis birTvebidan. siCqare meryeobs sxvadasxva 

radioaqtiuri elemntebisaTvis 250 000 dan 280 000 km/wm. energia 1mev

dan 5mev-mde. haerSi ganarbeni manZili 10-20 metramde. qsovilebSi 

aRweven 5-7 mm-ze.

     gama g nawilaki warmoadgens eleqtromagnitur gamosxivebas. ar 

gaaCnia masa. haerSi ganarbeni manZili 1,5-2km-mde. energia meryeobs 

1mev-dan 10 mev-mde. AaRwevs yvelgan da yvelaferSi. siCqare 300 000

km/wm-Si. neitronuli nawilakebi n warmoiqmneba birTvuli 

afeTqebebisas, gansakuTrebiT neitronuli bombis afeTqebisas. maTi 

energia meryeobs 1 _ 10 mev-mde. gaaCniaT maRali SeRwevadoba

 

 

 

radiaciis sazomi erTeulebi

     radiaciis danaxva an SegrZneba SeuZlebelia. magram is

SeiZleba iyos dafiqsirebuli da gazomili. radiacia izomeba

drois erTeulSi birTvebis daSlis raodenobis daTvliT.    “kiuri”

esaris radiaqtivoba, romelic aRiniSneba 1 gram radiumSi.

“bekereli’ es ra dionuklidebis is raodenobaa, romelic

warmoiqmneba erTi daSlis Sedegad erT wamSi.

     radiaciuli energia aseve SeiZleba iyos gazomili, es xdeba 

eleqtron voltebSi an joulebSi. Ddasxiveba gamoixateba garkveul 

zedapirze ganawilebuli energiis raodenobis mixedviT. maSin 

rodesac xdeba cocxali organizmis dasxiveba, laparakoben 

dasxivebis dozaze. radiaciis doza izomeba “rad”-ebsa an “grei” 

bSi. asi radi udris erT greis. erTi grei ekvivalenturia erTi 

joulis odenobis energias STanTqmuls qsovilebis 1kg-iT.

dasxivebis faqtis dadgena ar aris sakmarisi, radgan sxadasxva 

tipis radiacia gansxvavdeba qsovilebze maTi damazianebeli 

moqmedebiT. am gansxvavebis gamosavlenad, mecnierebi

iyeneben ricxvs, romelsac “ekvivalenturi doza” ewodeba. 

ekvivalenturi doza udris STanTqmul dozas gamravlebuls 

xarisxobriv koeficientze. xarisxobrivi koeficienti gansxvavdeba

radiaciis tipis mixedviT. erTeulebi, romlebSic izomeba 

ekvivalenturi doza, aris remi da ziverti. ekvivalenturi doza

remebSi raodenobrivad udris STanTqmul dozas radebSi, gamrav-

lebuls xarisxobriv faqtorze da nebismier sxva mamodificirebel 

faqtorze.

  ekvivalenturi dozis gamoyenebiTY xdeba radiaciis dozis (dozis 

intensivobis) gazomva. es doza (dozis intensivoba) warmoadgens 

energias, STanTqmuls nivTierebis masis erTeuliT radiaciis 

zegavlenis Sedegad. is izomeba rem/saaTSi. dagrovili 

(kumulaciuri) doza es aris dozis intensivoba gamravlebuli 

gamosxivebis droze. radiaciis (STanTqmuli) dozebi izomeba 

radebsa da remebSi. radi warmoadgens radiaciis STanTqmul dozas.

is asaxavs radiaciis Sedegad qsovilebis erTi gramiT miRebul 

energias.

  radiaciis danaxva an SegrZneba SeuZlebelia. magram is SeiZleba

iyos dafiqsirebuli da gazomili. radiacia izomeba drois

erTeulSi birTvebis daSlis raodenobis daTvliT. “kiuri” es

aris  radiaqtivoba ,romelic aRiniSneba 1 gramradiumSi. “bekereli’

es radionuklidebis is raodenobaa, romelic warmoiqmneba erTi

daSlis Sedegad erT wamSi.

  radiaciuli energia aseve SeiZleba iyos gazomili, es xdeba

eleqtronvoltebSi an joulebSi.Ddasxiveba gamoixateba garkveul

zedapirze ganawilebuli energiis raodenobis mixedviT. maSin

rodesac xdeba cocxali organizmis dasxiveba, laparakoben

dasxivebis dozaze.

  radiaciis doza izomeba “rad”-ebsa an “grei”-Si.Aasi radi udris

erT greis. erTi grei ekvivalenturia erTi joulis odenobis

energias STanTqmuls qsovilebis 1kg-iT. dasxivebis faqtis dadgena

ar aris sakmarisi, radgan sxadasxva tipis radiacia gansxvavdeba

qsovilebze maTi damazianebeli moqmedebiT. am gansxvavebis

gamosavlenad, mecnierebi iyeneben ricxvs ,romelsac “ekvivalenturi

doza” ewodeba. ekvivalenturi doza udris STanTqmul dozas

gamravlebuls xarisxobriv koeficientze. xarisxobrivi koeficienti

gansxvavdebaradiaciistipismixedviT.erTeulebi,romlebSic

izomebaekvivalenturidoza,arisremidaziverti.ekvivalenturi

dozaremebSiraodenobrivadudrisSTanTqmuldozasradebSi,

gamravlebulsxarisxobrivfaqtorzedanebismiersxva

mamodificirebelfaqtorze.

ekvivalenturidozisgamoyenebiTYxdebaradiaciisdozis(dozis

intensivobis)gazomva.esdoza(dozisintensivoba)warmoadgens

energias,STanTqmulsnivTierebismasiserTeuliTradiaciis

zegavlenisSedegad. isizomebarem/saaTSi.dagrovili

(kumulaciuri)dozaesarisdozisintensivobagamravlebuli

gamosxivebisdroze.

radiaciis(STanTqmuli)dozebiizomebaradebsadaremebSi.radi

warmoadgensradiaciisSTanTqmuldozas. isasaxavsradiaciis

SedegadqsovilebiserTigramiTmiRebul energias.

 remiwarmoadgensrentgenisbiologiurekvivalents. is

asaxavsgarkveulitipisradiaciisunarsgamoiwviosbiologiuri

dazianeba.Mmag:erTidaigiveenergiiTzemoqmedebisas

alfanawilakiwarmoqmnis10-jerufrometbiologiurzians,vidre

gamadarentgenissxivebi.radiaciisSTanTqmulidozaadamianebSi

xSiradizomebamiliremebSianremismeaTasedebSi.Ddozaaseve,

SeiZlebaiyosgamoxatulisaerTaSorisosistemiserTeulebSi,

sadacerTizivertitolia100remis,xoloerTigrei_ 100radis.

dasxivebisasdidirolieniWebadroisfaqtors.UundaaRiniSnos,

romxangrZilividroisganmavlobaSimiRebulidasxivebaufro

gadaitanebaadamianismier,vidreigivedoziszemoqmedebaxanmokle

droisganmavlobaSi.dasxivebaxangrZilividroisganmavlobaSi

ujredsaZlevsaRdgenissaSualebas.

radiaciulisaSiSroebismeoredamokidebulebadrosTan

mimarTebaSiganisazRvrebae.w.naxevraddaSlisperiodiT.naxevrad

daSlispiriodiwarmoadgensdros,romelicsaWiroa

radioaqtiurinivTierebebismierradioaqtiurobis50%-is

dasakargaddaSlisprocesebisSedegad.yovelradionuklids

axasiaTebsgarkveulinaxevraddaSlisperiodi. issxvadasxvara-

dioaqtiurinivTierebisasTvissxavadsxvaa.zogierTisnaxevrad

daSlispiriodisulramodenimewamia,xolosxvebis_ramodenime

weliwadi. BzogierTisamedicinomowyobilobadaproceduraiwvevs

pacientisdasxivebas.AmasmiekuTvnebaradiologiuriTerapiada

radioaqtiurinivTierebebisimplantebisSeyvana,organizmSi

avTvisebianisimsivneebissamkurnalod.pacientebi,romlebsac

oraganizmSiSeyvaniliaqvTradiaciuliwyaroebi,qmnian

radiaciulidasxivebisrisksgarSemomyofTaTvis.

aseTipacientebisricxvsmiekuTvnebaavadmyofebi,visac

implantirebuliaqvTradioaqtiuriwyaroebianSeyvaniliaqvT

radioaqtiurinivTierebebiparenteraluradanperoralurad.

saavadmyofoebSirentgenisaparatebidamowyobiloba

radiologiuriTerapiisaTvisaseveSeiZlebaiyospacientebisada

personalisradiaciulidasxivebismizezi.

 

birTvuliiaraRi

  birTvuliiaraRiwarmoadgensfeTqebadmowyobilobas,romlis

afeTqebisenergiamiiRebabirTvebisdaSlisSedegad.

birTvuliiaraRiwarmodgeniliatreadiT_birTvulibombi,

TermobirTvulidaneitronulibombi.birTvulibombiSedgeba

detonatorisagan,feTqebadinivTierebisagan(trotili..)

daU235-isnaxevarsferoebisagan.jerfeTqdebafeTqebadi

nivTiereba,romlisdrosacmiiRebamilionobiTgradusi

temperatura,romelicganapirobebsU235-isnaxevarsferoebis

SeerTebasdaiwyebajaWvurireaqciaudidesidamangreveliZalis

mqoneenergiisgamotyorcniT.

TermobirTvulibombiSedgebadetonatorisagan,feTqebadi

nivTierebisagan(trotili..),U235-isnaxevarsferoebisagan,

deiteriumisadatritiumisagandaU238-isagan.jerfeTqdeba

detonatori,SemdegfeTqebadinivTiereba,romlisdrosacmiiReba

milionobiTgradusitemperatura,erTdebaU235-isnaxevarsferoebi,

iwyebajaWvurireaqcia.maRalitemperaturaganapirobebs

deiteriumisadatritiumisSeerTebas,amdrosyvelamimarTulebiT,

radialuradudidesisiswrafiTgamoityorcnebaswrafineitronebi,

romlebicbombardirebasukeTebenU238-sdaiseviwyebajaWvuri

reaqciadamangreveliZalismqoneenergiisgamotyorcniT.

neitronulibombiSedgebadetonatorisagan,feTqebadi

nivTierebisagan(mxolodimraodenobiTromelicsakmarisiiqneba

wyalbadisizotopebisSeerTebisaTvis)dawyalbadis

izotopebisagan.jerfeTqdebadetonatori,SemdgomfeTqebadi

nivTiereba,SemdgomerTdebadeiteriumidatritiumi,rac

ganapirobebsswrafineitronebisgamotyorcnas.Eesukanasknelni

azianebenyovelivecocxals.

 

 

 

afeTqebebi simaRlis mixedviT

 ganasxvaveben;

      kosmosurafeTqebas

      sahaero  afeTqebas

      miwiszedaafeTqebas

      miwisqveSaafeTqebas

      wyalzedaafeTqebas

      wyalqveSaafeTqebas

kosmosuriafeTqebagankuTvniliastrategiulidaniSnulebis

kosmosurixomaldebisgasanadgureblad.

sahaeroafeTqebagankuTvniliastrategiulidaniSnulebis

bombdamSenebisgasanadgureblad.

miwiszedaafeTqebagankuTvniliastrategiulidaniSnulebis

samxedroobieqtebis(samxedroqarxnebi,bazebi..)gasanadgureblad.

miwisqveSaafeTqebagankuTvniliastrategiulidaniSnulebis

miwisqveSasamxedroqarxnebis,aerodromebis,mZimetipis

TavSesafrebis,metroebisgasanadgureblad.

wyalzedaafeTqebagankuTvniliastrategiulidaniSnulebis

wyalzedakreiserebisgasanadgureblad,romlebicTavianT

gembanzeatarebenbirTvularsenals.

wyalqveSaafeTqebagankuTvniliastrategiulidaniSnulebis

wyalqveSabirTvulixomaldebisadabazebisgasanadgureblad

 

 

 

birTvuli afeTqebebis

damazianebeli faqtorebi

     birTvuli afeTqebebis damazianebeli faqtorebia:

      dartymiTi talRa

      sinaTlis gamosxiveba

      gamWoli radiacia

      radioaqtiuri dabinZureba

      eleqtromagnituri impulsebi

    

     dartymiTi talRa.

     dartymiTi talRa warmoadgens Zlier SekumSul haeris masas, 

romelic vrceleba udidesi siswrafiT, radialurad, iwvevs 

Senobebis ngrevas da adamianTa dazianebas.

dartymiTi talRis moqmedebis radiusi damokidebulia afeTqebis 

saxeobaze, afeTqebis simZlavreze. dartmiTi talRis moqmedebis 

Zala izomeba paskalebSi. 1paskali=0,00001kgZ/smxirosimasa da 

nagasakaSi 13 kilotoniani bombis afeTqebisas moqmedebis radiusi

Semdegi iyo: 900m-is radiusSi _ daingra yvela Senoba nageboba. 

adamianTa msxverpli 100%. 2-2,5km-is radiusSi Zlieri ngrevis zona, 

aRiniSneboda mZime dazianebebi. 3-4km-is radiusSi susti ngrevis 

zona, aRiniSneboda SemTxveviTi travmebi.

100 kpaskali anu 1kgZ/sm2 dartymiTi talRis moqmedebisas Ria 

teritoriaze adgili aqvs sasikvdilo travmebs, sisxlCaqcevebs, 

sisxldenas yurebidan, cxviridan, kontuziebs, Rru organoebis 

gaxeTqvas da sxva. 0,5-0,9kgZ/sm2 dartymiTi talRis moqmedebisas

aRiniSneba mZime travmebi. 0,4-0,5 kgZ/sm2 dartymiTi talRis 

moqmedebisas aRiniSneba saSualo simZimis  travmebi. 0,2-0,3 kgZ/sm2 

dartymiTi talRis moqmedebisas aRiniSneba msubuqi dazianebebi.

 

 

 

 

dartymiTi talRis moqmedebis radiusi (km)

20kt

100kt

1mt

10mt

mTliani ngrevisa da adamianTa ganadgurebis zona

100kpa

0,7

1,2

2,9

4,9

Zlieri ngrevisa da saSualo simZimis travmebis zona

30 – 90 kpa

1,5

2,5

5,2

11,5

susti ngrevisa da msubuqi tramvebis zona 10-30 kpa

3

5,4

12,2

28

mesame xarisxis damwvroba

1

2,4

5,1

16

meore xarisxis damwvroba

1,2

3,8

5,8

17

pirveli xarisxis damwvroba

1,8

6

9

29

 

 

 

 

                   sinaTlis gamosxiveba.

 

 

     sinaTlis gamosxiveba warmoadgens gavarvarebul

manaTobel sferos. Mmoqmedebs 10-20 wamis ganmavlobaSi. M

mis siaxloves yvelaferi lRveba. Mmoqmedebis radiusi

damokidebulia afeTqebis saxeobaze,  simZlavreze,

meteorologiur faqtorebze (wvima, Tovli, nisli).

sinaTlis gamosxiveba iwvevs sawvavi nivTierebebis aalebas, 

ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios masiuri xanZrebi, xolo adamianTa

da cxovelTa sxeulis sxvadasxva simZimis damwvrobebi.

xirosimaSi daiwva miaxloebiT 60 000 Senoba, xolo

mosaxleobis 82 procentma miiRo sxvadasxva xarisxis

damwvrobebi. sinaTlis gamosxivebis damazianebeli moqmedeba

izomeba sinaTlis mpulsebiT, anu energiis raodenobiT,

romelic ecema 1m2 sxeuls da izomeba kilojouli/m2-ze.

 

100-200kj/m2 (2-5 kal/sm2) impulsi iwvevs 1 xarisxis damwvrobas;

 

200-400kj/m2 (5-10 kal/sm2) _ meore xarisxis damwvrobas;

 

400-ze meti kj/m2-ze (10kal/sm2-ze meti) _ mesame xarisxis damw.

 

garda amisa sinaTlis impulsebi  iwvevn  sibrmaves,

gansakuTrebiT RamiT, roca guga gafarToebulia. Aamitom 

masze  yureba mizanSewonili ar aris. Aucileblad swrafad

unda davxuWoT Tvalebi. dReisaTvis arsebobs damcavi

fotoqromuli saTvaleebi.

sxvadsxva qsovilebi sxvadasxvanairad aRiqvamen sinaTlis

impulsis moqmedebas. mag: Savi feris qsovilebi metad

STanTqaven sinaTlis energias vidre Ria feris. Savi feris

qsovili STanTqavs 99% sinaTlis energiisa, xakis feri – 60%-s,

TeTri ki – 25%-s.

 

 

                      gamWoli radiacia.

 

     afeTqebis momentSi, miaxloebiT 15-20 wamis ganmavlobaSi, 

birTvuli da TermobirTvuli reaqciebis Sedegad

gamoityorcneba gama, alfa, beta da neitronuli nawilakebi.

magram gamWol radiacias ganekuTvneba mxolod gama da

nitronebi. radganac alfas da betas haerSi ganarbeni manZili

mcire aqvT, amitom maT arc SeiZleba hqondeT gamWoli

SesaZlebloba.

   gamWoli radiaciis moqmedebis radiusi 20kt sahaero

afeTqebisas Semdegnairad gamoixateba.

 

800m _ 100% sikvdilianoba, doza (10 000r);

1,2km _ 75% sikvdilianoba, doza (1000r);

2km _ sxivuri daavadeba 1-2 xarisxis doza (50-200r).

    

gamWoli radiaciisagan Tavdsacavad gamoiyeneba mZime

tipis TavSesafrebi.

 

 

sisqis naxevradSemcirebis koeficienti

 

 

masalis saxeoba

simkvriveg/sm3

K0,5 gama sxivebisa

K0,5 neitronebisa

wyali

1,0

14-20

3-6

xe

0,7

15-30

10-15

grunti

1,6

10-14

11-14

betoni

2,3

6-12

9-12

javSani

7,8

2-3

5-12

tyvia

11,3

1,4-2

9-20

 

 

 

             adgilmdebareobis radioaqtiuri dabinZureba.

 

aranakleb saxifaTo damazianebel faqtors warmoadgens

adgilmdebareobis radioaqtiuri dabinZureba.Aam faqtoris

Tavisebureba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom ziandeba Zalian didi

teritoriebi, garda amisa misi moqmedeba grZeldeba xangrZlivi

drois ganmavlobaSi (Tveebi, kvireebi, wlebi). 1954wlis 1 marts  amerikelebis mier wynar okeaneSi kulZul bikiniasTan

ganxorcielebuli sawvrTneli afeTqebis  Sedegad (10mtbombi),

aRiniSna 600km radiusis teritoriis radioaqtiuri dabinZureba

da aramarto daziandnen marSalis kunZulebis mcxovreblebi

267adamiani, romlebic imyofebodnen epicentridan 540km-is

moSorebiT, aramed aseve 23 iaponeli mezRvauri TevzsaWer

xomaldze 160km-isdaSorebiT.

 

 

radioaqtiuri dabinZurebis wyaroebs  warmoadgenen _

radioaqtiuri izotopebi,

mizanmimarTuli radiacia da

birTvuli muxtis dauSleli nawilebi.

uranisa da plutonis daSlis Sedegad miRebuli

radioaqtiuri izotopebi warmoadgenen yvelaze saxifaTo 

dabinZurebis wyaros.

uranisa da plutonis daSlisas mimdinare jaWvuri

reaqciebisas birTvebi iSleba jer orad Semdgom samad da

ase Semdeg (am dros gamoityorcneba beta da gama sxivebi)

sanam sabolood ar miiReba araradioaqtiuri nivTierebebi

(bariumi, tyvia). ase xvdeba sokosebur RrubelSi 200-mde

radioaqtiuri izotopi 35 elementisa cinkidan dawyebuli

gadoliniT damTavrebuli. jaWvuri reaqciebis mimdinareobisas

yvelaze gavrcelebul izotopebs warmoadgenen itriumis,

teluris, molibdenis, iodis, qsenonis, bariumis, stronciumis,

ceziumis, cirkoniumis izotopebi da sxva. zemoT aRniSnuli

izotopebi imyofebian sokosebur RrubelSi da mtvris

nawilakebTan erTad aitaneba miwis zedapiridan, ris Sedegadac sokoseburi Rrubeli radioaqtiuri xdeba. iq sadac ileqeba

radioaqtiuri mtveri (teritoria,sagnebi) iTvleba

dabinZurebulad radioaqtiurinivTierebebiT.M

mizanmimarTuli radiacia warmoiqmneba neitronuli nakadis

moqmedebis Sedegad. neitronebs unari gaaCniaT imoqmedon

sxvadsxva nivTierebebis birTvebTan (haeri, niadagi da sxva),

ris Sedegadac elementebi radioaqtiurebi xdebian da

asxiveben beta da gama sxivebs.

mag: natriumi neitronis mierTebisas gardaiqmneba radioaqtiur

izotopad:

2311Na+ n1   =   2411Na,

es ukanaskneli ganicdis beta daSlas gama gamosxivebiT da aqvs

naxevraddaSlis periodi 14,9sT:

2411Na   =2412Mg+b-+g.

gruntis neitronuli nawilakebiT dasxivebisas ZiriTadi

mniSvneloba eniWeba Semdeg radioaqtiur nivTierebebs:

marganeci-52, kremniumi-31, natriumi-24, kalciumi-45. M

miuxedavad amisa mizanmimarTul radiacias mcire roli eniWeba

rameTu mcire teritorias moicavs da rac mTavaria am dros

warmoqmnili izotopebi mcire naxevraddaSlis periodiT

gamoirCevian. magram TermobirTvuli da neitronuli

bombis afeTqebisas mizanmimarTul radiacias didi roli

eniWeba rameTu am dros gamoityorcnebian Zalian  didi

raodenoba  swrafi neitronebisa.

birTvuli muxtis dauSlel nawilebs warmoadgens uranisa da

plutonis atomebi. saqme imaSi mdgomareobs rom birTvuli

muxtis sasargeblo gamoyenebis koeficienti Seadgens 10%-s,

danarCeni atomebi uranisa da plutonisa ver aswreben daSlas

da mtvris saxiT ileqebian sokoseburi Rrublidan. unda

aRiniSnos dauSleli nawilakebi mcire rols TamaSoben,

rameTu uransa da plutons gaaCniaT didi naxevraddaSlis

periodi da amavdroulad isini asxiveben mxolod alfa

nawilakebs, romlebic saxifaToni arian mxolod organizmSi

moxvedrisas. did safrTxes warmoadgenen mxolod daSlili

uranisa da plutonis nawilakebi. maTi gama aqtivoba 20kt-iani

bombis afeTqebidan 1wT-is Semdeg utoldeba 8,2x1011kiuri. 

 radioaqtiuri  nawilakebis  daleqvis dro ganisazRvreba

Semdegi formuliT:

t0 =   Rv

sadac,t0      nawilakebis daleqvis dawyebis droa, R_manZili

epicentridan kilometrebSi, V_ qaris siCqare km/sT.

dabinZurebul teritoriaze radiaciis done mudmivad

mcirdeba.E Semcireba xdeba Semdegi wesiT: afeTqebidan 7sT-is

gasvlis Semgom radiacia mcirdeba 10-jer.Mmag: Tu 1sT-Semdgom

radiacia 1000r/sT iyo, 7sT-is Semdgom is gautoldeba 100r/sT,

xolo 49sT-isSemdgom 10r/sT, 343sT-is Semdgom (2kvira) _ 1r/sT.

evropaSi 200-mde atomuri eleqtrosadguria. saqarTvelos

maxloblad ganlagebulia somxeTis atomuri eleqtrosadguri.

maTma dazianebam SesaZloa migviyvanos Zalian didi teritoriebis dabinZurebamde savalalo Semdgomi SedegebiT xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi. amis naTeli magaliTia Cernobilis birTvuli

eleqtrosadguri.

 

             

                elqtromagnituri impulsebi.

 

 

eleqtromagnitur iimpulsebi warmoadgenen eleqtro da

magnituri velebis nakads. isini warmoiqmneba atmosferoSi

Weqa-quxilis msgavsad da gatardeba antenebSi, eleqtro

gadamcem xazebSi mZlavri denis saxiT.Ees ukanaskneli ki

gamoiwvevs avtomaturi gadamrTvelebis, radio, kompiuteruli

da elqtro xelsawyoebis mwyobridan gamoyvanas.

eleqtromagnituri impulsebis moqmedebis radiusi 1mt

sahaero afeTqebisas utoldeba 32km-s, 10mt-isas_115km.

eleqtromagnituri impulsebi gamoiyeneba satelevizio,

sareleo,  satelefono, radio da sxva komunikaciebis

mwyobridan gamosayvanad.

 

 

 

 

 

              radiaciuli dazianebebis paTogenezi

 

jer kidev 1906wels frangma mecnierebma bergonem da

tribondom, romlebic swavlobdnen radiaciis zemoqmedebas

ujredebze, mividnen daskvnamde, rom ujredis mgrZnobeloba

radiaaciisadmi pirdapir proporciulia ujredis unarisa

gamravlebisadmi. radiaciisadmi maRalmgrZnobelurni arian

sisxlwarmomqmneli organoTa ujredebi: Zvlis wiTeli tvini,

nawlavebis lorwovani, limfocitebi, gonadebi. es ujredebi

SedarebiT mcire doziT dasxivebisas (0,5-1-4gr) iRupebian.

nervuli da kunTovani ujredebi radiorezistentulebi arian.

isini iRupebian mxolod maRali dozebiT dasxivebisas

(40-80-100gr).

 

 

 

 

Uujredi,

qsovili

Ffunqcionaluri

cvlilebebi (gr)

Uujredis

daRupva

(gr)

Nnayofi

0,05-0,1

0,5-1,0

Llimfociti

0,25-0,5

4-6

ZvliswiTeli tvini

0,5-1,0

80-100

nawlavTakriptebis ujredebi

1-2

8-10

RviZlisada Tirkmlebis ujredebi

3-4

30-40

 

 

unda aRiniSnos, rom nervuli ujredebi nayofis zrdis

adreul etapze maRalmgrZnobelurni arian dasxivebisadmi,

radganac am etapze isini mravldebian.

 

rogoria radiaciis moqmedebis meqanizmi ujredebze?

 

pirdapiri moqmedebis Teoria (n.v.timofeev-resovskidasxva).A

 

am Teoriiis Tanaxmad gama kvantebi xvdebian ujredis

garkveul mgrZnobiare areSi (“mizanSi”), rac ganapirobebs am

ukanasknelis sikvdils. es Teoria Sevsebuli iqna

arapirdapiri moqmedebis TeoriiT, romlis Tanaxmad wylis

dasxivebisas (wyali Seadgens ujredis miaxloebiT

80%-s) warmoiqmneba Tavisufali radikalebi H2O+,e-,OH-,H2O2

da sxva, romlebic arseboben memilionedi wamis ganmavlobaSi,

magram SeuZliaT daazianon ujredis struqturebi.

sulfohidriluri hipoTeza (barron, graevski da

sxvebi): am hipoTezis Tanaxmad fermentebis SH jgufebi maRal

mgrZnobelurni arian radiaciisadmi, rac ganapirobebs

ujredis biostruqturis rRvevas.

dReisaTvis didi aRiareba xvda wilad Teorias romlis

Tanaxmad didi roli eniWeba radiaciis moqmedebas ujredis

genetikur struqturebze. am Teoriis mixedviT aRiniSneba

birTvis, qromosomebis, dnm-isfunqciisa da struqturis rRveva.

dasxivebisas dnm-Si iaRiniSneba sxvadasxva

struqturuli cvlilebebi _ wyalbaduri kavSirebis

gawyveta, qromosomebis gawyveta, qromosomuli mutaciebi.

irRveva dnm, rnm, irRveva genetikuri kodi, irRveva

nivTierebaTa cvla da sxva. yovelive zemoT Tqmulidan adgili

eqneba ujredis daRupvas.Ddasxivebas ganicdis citoplazmac _

ziandeba mitoqondriebi, ujredSida membrana. ujredis

radiaciuli dazianebis xarisxi damokidebulia dasxivebis

dozaze, saxeobaze, gamosxivebis simZlavreze, garemo

faqtorebze, Jangbadis Semcvelobaze, ujredis sasicocxlo

ciklze.

 

 

mwvave sxivuri daavadebis Semdeg formebs ganasxvaveben: Zvaltvinovani forma; nawlavuri forma; toqsemiuri forma; cerebraluri forma.

       sxivuri daavadebis Zvaltvinovani forma (1 – 6-10gr gama dasxivebisas). sisxlSi dasxivebidan pirvel da meore dRes aRiniSneba limfopenia da neitrofiluri leikocitozi, 3-5 dRis Semdeg granulocitopenia, leikopenia da retikulocitopenia. anemia iwyeba 10-15 dRis Semdeg (eriTrociebis sicicoxlis xangrZlivoba 100-200 dRe), Trombocitopenia viTardeba me-7 me-8 dRes  

am formisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia:

-    infeqciur-septiuri sindromi. granulocitopeniis gamo irRveva mikrobebis fagocitozi, limfopeniis gamo antisxeulebis warmoqmna, aqedan gamomdinare infeqciur-septiuri garTulebebi, romelic letalobiT mTavrdeba.

-    hemoragiuli sindromi, sisxlCaqcevebi da sisxldena Trombocitopeniis gamo (sisxlis Sededeba darRveulia), hemopoezis darRveva, sisxlwarmomqmneli ujredebis mkvdari sisxlwarmomqmneli ujredebiT intoqsikacia, aseve radiaciis zemoqmedeba sxva organoebsa da sistemebze iwvevs nervuli, endokrinuli, gul-sisxlZarRvTa da sxva sistemebis disfunqcias.

Zvaltvinovani forma mimdinareobis mixedviT iyofa 4 periodad:

-    pirveladi reaqciis periodi – mimdinareobs 2-4 dRe. damaxasiTebelia: gulisreva Rebineba, sisuste. adgili aqvs gul-sisxlZarRvTa, neiroendokrinulisistemebis disfunqcias. sisxlSi neitrofiluri leikocitozi, limfopenia, retikulocitopenia. simptomebis simZime damokidebulia dasxivebis dozaze.

-    faruli periodi – mixedavad cru gamojanmrTelebisa paTologiuri procesi progresirdeba, hemopoezi, sisxlis ujreduli Semadgenloba icvleba. mimdinareobs 3-5 dan 15-20 dRemde. damokidebulia dasxivebis dozaze.

-    gaCaRebis periodi – sisxlis Semadgenlobis, imunuri sistemis darRveva, infeqciur-septiuri garTulebebi, sefsisi, sisxldena, sisxlCaqcevebi, kuW-nwlavis traqtis da nivTierebaTa cvlis moSla da sxva. mZime formis dros SeuZlebelia hemopoezis aRdgena. mimdinareobs 15-30 dRe.

-    gamojanmrTelebis periodi – hemopoezis TandaTanobiT aRdgena, hemoragias da infeqciur garTulebebs adgili aRar aqvT. gamojanmrTeleba mimdinareobs Zalian nela 2-5 dan 6-10 Tvemde.  

nawlavuri forma viTardeba 10-20gr doziT dasxivebisas. aRiniSneba sisxlwarmomqmneli ujredebis, nawlavebis gamravlebadi ujredebis sruli kvdoma, intoqsikacia, mikrobebis invazia da sxva. daavadebuli iRupeba 7-10 dReSi 

 toqsemiuri forma viTardeba 20-80gr doziT dasxivebisas organizmis yvela sasicocxlo funqcia irRevva. sikvdili dgeba 4-6 dRis Semdeg.

cerebraluri forma 80-100gr da meti dasxivebisas aRiniSneba ujredebis kvdoma, tvinis SeSupeba, sikvdili dgeba 1-3 dRis Semdeg

       qronikuli sxivuri daavadeba SeiZleba ganviTardes mravaljeraedi an xangrZlivi garegani dasxivebisas an radioaqtiuri nivTierebebis moxvedrisas saWmlis momnelebel sistemaSi. maTi garkveuli raodenoba gamoiyofa gamomyofi sistemiT, magram nawili Seiwoveba organoebsa da qsovilebSi (iodis izotopebi farisebr jirkvalSi, stroncium 90 ZvlebSi). simZimis xarisxis mixedviT ganasxvaveben: msubuq, saSualo da mZime xarisxis qronikul daavadebas.

       msubuqis dros - sisuste, gaRizianebadoba, tkivili, Tavbrusxveva, Zilis moSla, hipotonia, bradikardia.   

saSualos dros - sisuste, gaxdoma, gaWaRaraveba, Tmebis cvena. leikopenia 2-3X109/l, Trombocitopenia, eds-is momateba, qveiTdeba imunuri Tvisebebi, aRiniSneba sisxldena. saWiroebs xangrZliv mkurnalobas. mZimes dros dazianebuli iRupeba 

 

 

Kkanis sxivuri dazianeba

 

ganasxvaveben oTx xarisxs:

      1xarisxis dazianeba (msubuqi)

      2xarisxis dazianeba (saSualo)

      3xarisxis dazianeba (mZime)

      4xarisxis dazianeba (zemZime)

1xarisxis dazianeba (msubuqi) aRiniSneba 8-12gr doziT

dasxivebis dros. am dros faruli stadia grZeldeba

 

2kviris ganmavlobaSi. gaCaRebis stadiaSi Cndeba eriTema,

romelic qreba 10-15dRis Semdeg. kanis mTliani aRdgena

xorcieldeba 2-4Tves, axasiaTebs kanis pigmentacia.

 

2xarisxis dazianeba (saSualo) aRiniSneba 12-20gr doziT

dasxivebis dros. adgili aqvs eriTemis warmoqmnas, romelic

male qreba. faruli periodi moqmedebs 1-2kviris ganmavlobaSi.

gaCaRebis stadiaSi aRiniSneba kanis SeSupeba, wva, vezikulebi,

dawyluleba. Sexorceba dgeba 1-1,5Tvis Semdeg. kanis mTliani

aRdgena aRiniSneba 3-6-Tvis Semdeg.

 

3xarisxis dazianeba (mZime) aRiniSneba 20-25gr doziT

dasxivebis dros. pirveladi reaqciis periodi grZeldeba

2dRemde. faruli erT kviramde. gaCaRebis stadiaSi adgili

aqvs cianozuri eriTemis warmoqmnas, Semdeg Cndeba

vezikulebi,  Semdeg wylulebi, romelic mTavrdeba

garqovanebiT 2-4Tvis Semdgom. kanisatrofias adgili aqvs

xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi.

 

4xarisxis dazianeba (zemZime) aRiniSneba 25-50gr doziT

dasxivebis dros. dawyebiTi stadia mkveTrad aris

gamoxatuli, faruli stadia araRiniSneba, Semdgom swrafad

warmoiqmneba Rrma wylulebi, romlebic xorcdeba 6-12Tvis

Semdgom.

 

 

            kombinirebuli sxivuri dazianeba.

 

kombinirebuli sxivuri dazianeba es aris sxivur

daavadebas + damwvroba, sxivur daavadebas + tramva,

sxivur daavadebas + damwvroba + tramva. kombinirebuli

sxivuri dazianeba Seadgens sxivuri daavadebiT

daavadebulTa 85%-s. am dros unda aRiniSnos, rom sxivuri

dazianeba amZimebs damwvrobisa da tramvebis mimdinareobas.

meore mxidan Tu SevxedavT_travma da damwvrobebi amZimeben

sxivuri daavadebis mimdinareobas.

am dros dazianebulebs unda aRmouCndeT Terapiuli

daxmareba sxivuri daavadebis samkurnalod da qirurgiuli,

tramvebisa da damwvrobebisas. sayuradReboa, rom qirurgiuli

Careva unda Catardes farul  stadiaSi rameTu mivaRwioT

Wrilobebis Sexorcebas gaCaRebis periodamde.

aseve unda Catardes antiSokuri RonisZiebebi, kanis

qirurgiuli damuSaveba da sxva.

 

 

 

 

              radiaciuli dazianebebis

M             mkurnalobis principebi da

                  profilaqtika

 

       radiaciuli dazianebebis profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebi:

_ TavSesafrebis gamoyeneba. isini garkveulwilad amcireben

dartymiTi talRis, aseve sinaTlis gamosxivebis

zemoqmedebas, xolo gamWoli radiaciis zemoqmedebas

200-jer.Uunda aRiniSnos rom isini icaven p/S radioaqtiuri

mtvrisagan.

_TavSesafrebis ar arsebobisas jarebma undagamoiyenon

sabrZolo manqanebis, tankebis, aseve damcavi kompleqtebis

dacviTi Tvisebebi.  dabinZurebuli teritoriidan gamosvlis

Semdeg aucilebelia Catardes sruli sanitaruli damuSaveba,

iaraRis teqnikis da sxva aRWurvilobis dezaqtivacia.

_daculi unda iqnas wyali, produqtebi radiaciisagan.

aikrZalos wylis, sakvebis gamoyeneba, romlebic

dabinZurebulia radioaqtiuri nivTierebebiT.

_gamoyenebuli iqnas “radiaciuli safrTxe” signalis dros

radioproteqtorebi. radiaciuli dazianebebisas warmoebs

kompleqsuri mkurnaloba sxivuri daavadebis simZimis,

saxeobis da sxva garemo pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

pirveladi reaqciis dros dazianebuls unda mieces Rebinebis

sawinaaRmdego saSualebebi etaperazini, SemdgomSi Camoecvas

respiratori, SemdgomSi damcavi labada da evakuirebuli

unda iqnas Semdgom etapze. dabinZurebuli teritoriidan

gamosvlisas unda Cautardes nawilobrivi sanitaruli

damuSaveba: jer unda gaiwmindos tanisamosi, fexsacmeli,

aRWurviloba radioaqtiuri mtvrisagan (CoTqiT, cocxiT da

sxva), Semdgom sxeulis Ria nawilebi unda Camoirecxos

wyliT (maTaridan), unda gamoirecxos piris Rru.

kombinirebuli dazianebebis dros upirvelesi daxmareba unda

aRmouCndes im dazianebulebs romlebsac aReniSnebaT

damwvroba da travmebi (sisxldenis SeCereba, naxvevebis dadeba, 

imobilizacia Zvlebis motexilobebisas, promedolis Seyvana

Spric-tubulidan da sxva)

eqimamdeli daxmareba: nawilobrivi sanitaruli damuSaveba,

Rebinebisas etaperazini, Cvenebebis mixedviT kordiamini, fenazepami.  

pirveli saeqimo daxmareba polkis samedicino punqtSi:

dozimetruli kontroli, nawilobrivi sanitaruli damuSaveba,

Rebinebis sawinaaRmdego saSualebebi etaperazini), dimedroli,

pipolfeni, fenazepami, kordiamini, mezatoni

kvalificiuri samedicino daxmareba: dozimetruli kontroli,

sruli sanitaruli damuSaveba, Rebinebis sawinaaRmdego

saSualebebi (etaperazini), dimedroli, pipolfeni, fenazepami,

kordiamini, mezatoni.  dezintoqsikaciuri saSualebebi

hemodezi, reopoliglukini, glukoza).Aucilebelia kuWis

amorecxva, adsorbentebis micema bariumis sulfati 20g,

pilosurmini an ferocini 3g, magniumis sulfati 30g.

specializirebuli samedicino daxmareba mimarTulia

dezintoqsikaciuri da simptomatiuri saSualebebis

gamoyenebaze.Aaqve unda aRiniSnos eTilendiamintetraacetat

kalciumis  ormagnatriumis  % 10-20-ml 10%glukozasTan

erTad venaSi (wveTovani). 5%kalciumis qloridi aseTive

dozebSi venaSi. farisebur jirkvalSi iodis izotopebis

Calagebis Semcirebis mizniT, pirveli 5-10 dRis ganmavlobaSi

rekomendirebulia kaliumis iodi 0,5g.

 

                   

 

 

 

 

 

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